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Native American or Indigenous Learning Research: A Pathfinder
II. Annotated Bibliography
1. AIHEC (American Indian Higher Education Consortium). [Online]. Retrieved April 8, 2002 from http://www.aihec.org/.
The American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) provides research on tribal colleges and universities. The "Research" portion of the Web site is most useful for locating learning research.
2. Alaska Native Knowledge Network. [Online]. Alaska Federation of Natives, University of Alaska, National Science Foundation, Rural School & Community Trust. Retrieved April 8, 2002 from http://www.ankn.uaf.edu/index.html.
The Alaska Native Knowledge Network seeks to maintain the indigenous culture while providing information for the improvement of cultural learning and educational practices for Alaskan native students.
3. American Indians and Alaska Natives. [Online]. ERIC: Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools. Retrieved April 10, 2002 from http://www.ael.org/eric/indians.htm. Good source for finding research and resources for Native American education. The ERIC digests are particularly useful and are freely available on the Web. "The Clearinghouse is part of a nationwide system of 16 clearinghouses in the Education Resources Information Center. Each clearinghouse is responsible for adding to the ERIC database education-related works on specific topics."
4. Barnhardt, Ray. (2002). Teaching/learning across cultures: strategies for success. Alaska Native Knowledge Network. Retrieved April 15, 2002 from http://www.ankn.uaf.edu/TLAC.html. This article reports that learning is improved when educators are aware of the indigenous worldview and incorporate such knowledge into the curriculum. Furthermore, Barnhardt suggests that ways of determining what has been learned should be altered as well.
5. Bobiwash, A. Rodney. (1999). Long term strategies for institutional change in universities and colleges: facilitating native people negotiating a middle ground. Retrieved April 20, 2002 from http://www.cwis.org/fwj/41/strat.html.
This article depicts the ideal learning environment in higher education for Native students. The issues brought up questions an "either/or" mentality. The author calls for higher education institutions to open their doors to the Indian population by striving to harmonize nontraditional academics with their Native background and worldview. "A person might exhibit many of the outward signs of enculturation yet hold deep foundational values which are Native."
6. Center for Educational Technology in Indian America. (2002). Online Resources for Indian Education. Retrieved April 15, 2002 from http://www.ldoe.org/cetia/resource.htm.
7. Demmert, Jr., William G. (2001). Improving academic performance among Native American students: a review of the research literature. [Online]. ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools. Retrieved April 8, 2002 from http://www.ael.org/eric/demmert.pdf.
"Except for the tribal schools, responsibility for the education of Native children and youth has been transferred from the tribes to state agencies, mostly to administrators and other individuals outside the communities or tribes. With this transfer of responsibility, Native students began experiencing high levels of educational failure and a growing ambivalence toward learning traditional tribal knowledge and skills. They often exhibited indifference to formal Western academic learning, as well."
8. Evans, Susan D. (2001). The potential contribution of comparative and international education to educational reform: an Examination of traditional, non-Western education. [Online]. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society (Washington, DC, March 14-17, 2001). Retrieved April 8, 2002 from http://www.indianeduresearch.net/nonwestern.pdf.
The ancient methods of education and learning are essential to the reform of modern education. The author advocates drawing paradigms from Native American cultural modes of education. The reasons for such suggestions include an emphasis on character education, integrated curriculum and lifelong learning.
9. Introduction to the DVC Learning Style Survey for College. [Online]. DVC Learning Style Survey for College. Retrieved April 15, 2002 from http://www.metamath.com//lsweb/dvclearn.htm.
10. Jacobs, Don Trent and Reyhner, Jon. (2002). Preparing teachers to support American Indian and Alaska Native student success and cultural heritage. ERIC Digest, EDO-RC-01-13. Retrieved April 8, 2002 from http://www.indianeduresearch.net/edorc01-13.htm.
11. Journal of American Indian Education, Special Issue, August 1989. Retrieved April 12, 2002 from http://jaie.asu.edu/sp/index.html
This August 1989 special edition of the journal focusses almost primarily on research regarding the educational environment and learning styles of Native American students.
12. Lipka, Jerry. (2002). Schooling for self-determination: research on the effects of including Native language and culture in the schools. ERIC Digest, EDO-RC-01-12. Retrieved April 15, 2002 from http://www.indianeduresearch.net/edorc01-12.htm.
This article discusses the impact of inculturation in American schools and ways in which this might be remedied. Even though this article pertains to native students in non-Indian schools, the subject of facilitating the retention of Native culture is an integral issue to all educators of Native American students.
13. McKay, Michelle. (1999). Relating indigenous pedagogy to the writing process. Journal of Indigenous Thought. Retrieved April 15, 2002 from http://www.sifc.edu/Indian%20Studies/IndigenousThought/fall99/pedagogy-mckay.htm.
Although this article is written from a Canadian perspective, the author's intent to describe the Indigenous worldview and its role is education is valuable. The author focuses of the commonalities that exist among North American Indian nations to define the concept of "Indigenous pedagogy." The holistic approach to learning is an important aspect of understanding the educational needs of Native students. "The teacher is a guide to the learning experience of a child rather than the master of their development."
14. More, Arthur J. (1989). Native Indian learning styles: a review for researchers and teachers. Journal of American Indian Education, special ed., August 1989. Retrieved April 12, 2002 from http://jaie.asu.edu/sp/V27S1nat.htm.
This article provides a clear explanation of the current theory of learning styles and the implications of such theory in educating American Indian students. The author claims that there is a uniquely different learning styles among American Indians, but that such students approach to learning and cultural background should be considered and dealt with when teaching American Indian students. "The reader is reminded that the most effective application of learning style theory lies in the greater understanding and ability to adapt to individual differences, and in identifying and building on the strengths of Indian students."
15. National Center for Education Statistics, American Indian and Alaska Native Education. (2002). Office of Educational Research & Improvement, U.S. Dept. of Education. Retrieved April 15, 2002 from http://nces.ed.gov/.
A good source of statistics regarding Indian Education, including statistics on tribal colleges, graduation rates, and conditions facing Indian education.
16. NativeCulture.com. (2001). NativeCulture.com: teaching, learning and information sharing. Retrieved April 15, 2002 from http://www.nativeculture.com/learn/.
The "Teaching and Learning" component of this cultural resource supplies the reader with current research articles in education and links to various educational institutions which serve indigenous learners.
17. Office of Indian Education. [Online]. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved April 20, 2002 from http://www.ed.gov/offices/OESE/oie/index.html.
The U.S. Department of Education's Native American component provides links to statistical and educational research pertaining to indigenous education.
18. Reyhner, Jon. (2002). American Indian Education. [Online]. Northern Arizona University. Retrieved April 12, 2002 from http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/AIE/index.html.
This is a Web site provided by a major researcher in the area of Native American education. Teacher resources are included, as well as research reports and issues that need to be addressed in further research.
19. Reyhner, Jon, Lee, Harry, & Gabbard, David. (1993). A specialized knowledge base for teaching American Indian and Alaska Native students. Tribal College Journal, 4(4). Retrieved April 15, 2002, from http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/TCarticle.html.
This article discusses the high-risk status of Native students in education and the factors influencing such a problem. The main arguments address the lack of cultural appropriateness of the classroom setting and the uniqueness of educating indigenous people. The authors advocate the acquisition of Native cultural knowledge of the part of the teachers of Native students in order to facilitate a culturally appropriate learning environment. "When the culture of the school and the culture of the child are incompatible, 'the school fails to teach and the child fails to learn'."
20. Roy, Loriene and Larsen, Peter. (2002). Oksale: an indigenous approach to creating a virtual library of education resources. D-Lib Magazine, 8(3). Retrieved April 21, 2002 from http://www.dlib.org/dlib/march02/roy/03roy.html.
Although this article details the experiences of a particular project, the first half of the article describes the indigenous approach to learning which is quite useful for educators of indigenous learners.
21 Schulz, William E. and Bravi, Gerry. (1986). Classroom learning environment in North American schools. Journal of American Indian Education, 26(1). Retrieved April 8, 2002 from http://jaie.asu.edu/v26/V26S1cla.htm.
In light of the educational problems that are facing Native American educators, these authors suggest a shift in perspective in the research carried out. The lack of motivation of students is related to the kind of culture that is put forth in the education environment.
22. Swisher, Karen. (1991). American Indian/Alaskan Native learning styles: research and practice. ERIC digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools. ED335175, 1991-05-00. Retrieved April 15, 2002, from http://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed335175.html.
An improved teaching style may be improved by understanding the learning styles and preferences of Native American students. Swisher discusses learning style research conducted in indigenous environments and makes suggestions to teachers about how they might incorporate such knowledge into their classroom and teaching style.
23. Swisher, Karen. (1994). American Indian learning styles survey: an assessment of teachers knowledge. The journal of educational issues of language minority students, 13. Retrieved April 7, 2002 from http://www.ncbe.gwu.edu/miscpubs/jeilms/vol13/americ13.htm.
Karen Swisher, in her survey of non-Indian and Indian educators, investigated the knowledge of learning styles on the part of the educators. The study also addresses how much the educators believe that cultural values of American Indians influences a student's learning style and demonstration of learning. The study reported a significant difference in the types of cultural values thought to influence learning styles between American Indian and non-Indian respondents. While the respondents had a average understanding of learning styles, there was not a great assumption that cultural values influenced learning style preferences.
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